Allen Newell biography




 Allen Newell, (born March 19, 1927, San Francisco, Calif., U.S.—died July 19, 1992, Pittsburgh, Pa.), American pc scientist and one of many pioneers of the science of synthetic intelligence (AI). Newell and his longtime collaborator Herbert A. Simon gained the 1975 A.M. Turing Award, the very best honour in pc science, for his or her “basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.”

Following two years of service throughout World War II within the U.S. Navy, Newell obtained a bachelor’s diploma in physics in 1949 from Stanford University in California. In 1950, after spending a yr finding out arithmetic at Princeton University, Newell joined the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif. At RAND he utilized mathematical strategies from operations analysis and recreation idea to the examine of administrative organizations and labored with the U.S. Air Force to simulate an early-warning radar monitoring station with its crew. In 1952 Newell’s work at RAND led to the creation of the Systems Research Laboratory and the start of his long-term affiliation with Simon, a RAND guide within the space of organizational evaluation. Simon and Newell quickly mentioned how computer systems may very well be used to look at human problem-solving strategies, and by 1955 Newell’s enthusiasm for the topic had satisfied RAND to help him whereas he studied below Simon on the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in Pittsburgh. In 1957 Newell earned the institute’s first AI-based doctoral diploma.

In 1956 Newell and Simon, along with one other RAND colleague, Clifford Shaw, unveiled one of many first AI packages, the Logic Theorist. Funded primarily by the air pressure and run on Johnniac (a pc named for John von Neumann, one of many inventors of the digital pc), the Logic Theorist was able to fixing normal logic issues, reminiscent of these discovered within the Principia Mathematica (1910–13) of mathematician-philosophers Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead. They additionally invented the Information Processing Language (IPL) for programming this and different AI packages. Their subsequent mission was the General Problem Solver (GPS), which first ran in 1957. Given an issue, GPS would repeatedly apply heuristic strategies (modifiable “rules of thumb”) after which carry out a “means-ends” evaluation after every step to confirm whether or not it was nearer to the specified answer.

In 1961 Newell left RAND to hitch the school at Carnegie, the place he participated within the creation of one of many nation’s first pc science departments. Newell’s fundamental analysis space lay in understanding how people assume, and he devoted his analysis to constructing methods that may resolve concrete, real-world issues. In 1972, along with Simon, Newell asserted that the essence of human cognition is the recursive technology of ideas from objectives to subgoals till an answer is lastly reached. During the Nineteen Eighties Newell started work (unfinished) on making use of this idea to a different, extra subtle, normal problem-solving program that he named Soar.

Newell was the founding president (1979–80) of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. He was awarded the U.S. National Medal of Science in 1992.

 

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