Raja Cholan History in english

Raja Raja Cholan History in English



Raja Raja Chola I (or Rajaraja Chola I) was a famend king who dominated over the Chola kingdom of southern India between 985 and 1014 CE. During his reign, the Cholas expanded past South India with their domains stretching from Sri Lanka within the south to Kalinga within the north. Raja Raja Chola additionally launched a number of naval campaigns that resulted within the seize of the Malabar Coast in addition to the Maldives and Sri Lanka.Raja Raja constructed the Brihadeeswarar Temple in Thanjavur, one of many largest Hindu temples. During his reign, the texts of the Tamil poets Appar, Sambandar and Sundarar have been collected and edited into one compilation known as Thirumurai. He initiated an enormous mission of land survey and evaluation in 1000 which led to the reorganization of the nation into particular person items often called valanadus. Raja Raja Chola died in 1014 and was succeeded by his son Rajendra Chola.

 

BACKGROUND

Raja Raja was born in 947 in Aipassi month on the day of Sadhayam star. He was the third baby of Parantaka Sundara Chola and Vanavan Maha Devi of the Velir Malayaman dynasty and was named Arulmozhi Varman. He had an elder brother Aditya Karikalan and an elder sister Kundavai. Aditya Karikalan, the crown prince was assassinated in suspicious circumstances in 969. After the dying of Aditya, Sundara Chola introduced that Uttama Chola will succeed him to the throne. Arulmozhivarman ascended the throne after the dying of Uttama Chola in 985. The Thiruvalangadu copper-plate inscriptions state that Raja Raja was elected by a democratic course of adopted by the Cholas.

Raja Raja's adopted title Raja Raja actually means "King of Kings". He was also referred to as Rajaraja Sivapada Sekhara (he who had the toes of Lord Shiva as his crown). His elder sister Kundavai Pirāttiyār assisted Raja Raja in administration and administration of temples. Raja Raja had at the least 4 queens together with Ōlōkamādēviyār and Thiripuvānamādēviyār and at the least three daughters. He had a son Rajendra with Thiripuvānamādēviyār. His first daughter Kundavai married Chalukya prince Vimaladithan. He had two different daughters named Mathevalzagal and Ģangamādevī. Raja Raja died in 1014 within the Tamil month of Maka and was succeeded by Rajendra Chola I.

MILITARY CONQUESTS

Rajaraja created a strong standing military and a substantial navy. Numerous regiments are talked about within the Thanjavur inscriptions. These regiments have been divided into elephant troops, cavalry and infantry and every of those regiments had its personal autonomy and was free to endow benefactions or construct temples.

Early campaigns

Rajaraja started his first marketing campaign within the eighth yr of his reign. The Pandyas, Cheras and the Sinhalas allied in opposition to the Cholas. In 994, Rajaraja destroyed the fleet of the Chera king Bhaskara Ravi Varman Thiruvadi (c. 978–1036) within the Kandalur War. Rajaraja defeated the Pandya king Amarabhujanga and captured the port of Virinam. To commemorate these conquests, Rajaraja assumed the title Mummudi Chola, a title utilized by Tamil kings who dominated the three kingdoms of Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras. In 1008, Rajaraja captured Udagai from Cheras and Rajendra Chola I led the Chola military on this battle.

Conquest of Sri Lanka

Mahinda V was the king of Sinhalese. In 991, Mahinda’s military mutinied with assist from mercenaries from Kerala with Mahinda in search of refuge within the southern area of Ruhuna. Rajaraja invaded Ceylon in 993. The Thiruvalangadu copper-plate inscriptions point out that Rajaraja’s military crossed the ocean by ships and destroyed Anuradhapura, the 1400-year-old capital of Sinhalas. Cholas made the town of Polonnaruwa because the capital and renamed it Jananathamangalam. Rajaraja constructed a Siva temple in Pollonaruwa to commemorate the victory. Raja Raja captured solely the northern a part of Sri Lanka whereas the southern half remained impartial. His son Rajendra Chola captured the island in 1017 and the Chola reign in Sri Lanka was ended by Vijayabahu I in 1070.

Chalukyan battle

In 998, Rajaraja captured the areas of Gangapadi, Nolambapadi and Tadigaipadi (current day Karnataka). Raja Chola extinguished the Nolambas, who have been the feudatories of Ganga whereas conquering and annexing Nolambapadi. The conquered provinces have been initially feudatories of the Rashtrakutas. In 973, the Rashtrakutas have been defeated by the Western Chalukyas resulting in direct battle with Cholas. An inscription of Irivabedanga Satyashraya from Dharwar describes him as a vassal of the Western Chalukyas and acknowledges the Chola onslaught. In the identical inscription, he accuses Rajendra of getting arrived with a drive of 955,000 and of getting gone on rampage in Donuwara thereby blurring the moralities of warfare as specified by the Dharmasastras. Historians like James Heitzman and Wolfgang Schenkluhn conclude that this confrontation displayed the diploma of animosity on a private stage between the rulers of the Chola and the Chalukya kingdoms drawing a parallel between the enmity between the Chalukyas of Badami and the Pallavas of Kanchi.

There have been encounters between the Cholas and the Hoysalas, who have been vassals of the Western Chalukyas. An inscription from the Gopalakrishna temple at Narasipur dated to 1006 data that Rajaraja's basic Aprameya killed minister Naganna and different generals of the Hoysalas. The same inscription in Channapatna additionally describes Rajaraja defeating the Hoysalas. Vengi kingdom was dominated by Jata Choda Bhima of the Eastern Chalukyas dynasty. Jata Choda Bhima was defeated by Raja Raja and Saktivarman was positioned on the throne of Vengi. After the withdrawal of the Chola military, Bhima captured Kanchi in 1001. Raja Raja expelled and killed Bhima earlier than re-establishing Saktivarman I on the throne of Vengi.

Kalinga conquest

The invasion of the dominion of Kalinga occurred after the conquest of Vengi.

Naval expedition

One of the final conquests of Raja Raja was the naval conquest of the islands of Maldives. The realization of the significance of a very good navy and the need to neutralize the rising Chera Naval energy have been most likely the explanations for the Kandalur marketing campaign within the early days of Rajaraja’s reign. The Cholas managed the realm round of Bay of Bengal with Nagapattinam as the primary port. The Chola Navy additionally had performed a significant position within the invasion of Sri Lanka. The success of Raja Raja allowed his son Rajendra Chola to steer the Chola invasion of Srivijaya, finishing up naval raids in South-East Asia and briefly occupying Kadaram.

ADMINISTRATION

Before the reign of Raja Raja I, elements of the Chola territory have been dominated by hereditary lords and princes who have been in a free alliance with the Chola rulers. Raja Raja initiated a mission of land survey and evaluation in 1000 which led to the reorganization of the empire into items often called valanadus. From the reign of Raja Raja Chola I till the reign of Vikrama Chola in 1133, the hereditary lords and native princes have been both changed or was dependent officers. This led to the king exercising a more in-depth management over the completely different elements of the empire. Rajaraja strengthened the native self-government and put in a system of audit and management by which the village assemblies and different public our bodies have been held to account whereas retaining their autonomy. To promote commerce, he despatched the primary Chola mission to China.

OFFICIALS

Rajendra Chola I used to be made a co-regent over the last years of Rajaraja’s rule. He was the supreme commander of the northern and northwestern dominions. During the reign of Raja Chola, there was an enlargement of the executive construction resulting in the rise within the variety of places of work and officers within the Chola data than throughout earlier intervals. Villavan Muvendavelan, one of many high officers of Raja Raja figures in a lot of his inscriptions. The different names of officers discovered within the inscriptions are the Bana prince Narasimhavarman, a basic Senapathi Krishnan Raman, the Samantha chief Vallavaraiyan Vandiyadevan, the income official Irayiravan Pallavarayan and Kuruvan Ulagalandan, who organised the country-wide land surveys.

RELIGIOUS POLICY

Rajaraja was a follower of Shaivism faculty of Hinduism. He was tolerant in the direction of different faiths and had a number of temples for Vishnu constructed and inspired the development of the Buddhist Chudamani Vihara on the request of the Srivijaya king Sri Maravijayatungavarman. Rajaraja devoted the proceeds of the income from the village of Anaimangalam in the direction of the maintenance of this Vihara.

ARTS AND ARCHITECTURE

Raja Raja Chola launched into a mission to get better the hymns after listening to brief excerpts of Thevaram in his court docket. He sought the assistance of Nambi Andar Nambi. It is believed that by divine intervention Nambi discovered the presence of scripts, within the type of cadijam leaves half eaten by white ants in a chamber contained in the second precinct in Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram. The brahmanas (Dikshitars) within the temple opposed the mission, however Rajaraja intervened by consecrating the pictures of the saint-poets by the streets of Chidambaram. Rajaraja thus grew to become to be often called Tirumurai Kanda Cholan that means one who saved the Tirumurai. Thus far Shiva temples solely had photos of god varieties, however after the arrival of Rajaraja, the pictures of the Nayanar saints have been additionally positioned contained in the temple. Nambi organized the hymns of three saint poets Sambandar, Appar and Sundarar as the primary seven books, Manickavasagar's Tirukovayar and Tiruvacakam because the eighth guide, the 28 hymns of 9 different saints because the ninth guide, the Tirumandiram of Tirumular because the 10th guide, 40 hymns by 12 different poets because the 10th guideTirutotanar Tiruvanthathi - the sacred anthathi of the labours of the 63 nayanar saints and added his personal hymns because the 11th guide. The first seven books have been later known as as Tevaram, and the entire Saiva canon, to which was added, because the 12th guide, Sekkizhar's Periya Puranam (1135) is wholly often called Tirumurai, the holy guide. Thus Saiva literature which covers about 600 years of non secular, philosophical and literary improvement.

Brihadisvara Temple

In 1010, Raja Raja constructed the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur devoted to Lord Shiva. The temple and the capital acted as a middle of each spiritual and financial exercise. It is also referred to as Periya KovilRajaRajeswara Temple and Rajarajeswaram. It is among the largest temples in India and is an instance of Dravidian structure throughout the Chola interval. The temple turned 1000 years previous in 2010. The temple is a part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site often called the "Great Living Chola Temples", with the opposite two being the Gangaikonda Cholapuram and Airavatesvara temple.

The vimanam (temple tower) is 216 ft (66 m) excessive and is the tallest on the planet. The Kumbam (the apex or the bulbous construction on the highest) of the temple is carved out of a single rock and weighs round 80 tons. There is an enormous statue of Nandi (sacred bull), carved out of a single rock measuring about 16 toes lengthy and 13 toes excessive on the entrance. The whole temple construction is made out of granite, the closest sources of that are about 60 km to the west of temple. The temple is among the most visited vacationer sights in Tamil Nadu.

COINS

Before the reign of Raja Raja Chola the Chola cash had on the obverse the tiger emblem and the fish and bow emblems of the Pandya and Chera Dynasties and on the reverse the title of the King. But throughout the reign of Raja Raja Chola appeared a brand new sort of cash. The new cash had on the obverse the determine of the standing king and on the reverse the seated goddess. The cash unfold over an ideal a part of South India and have been additionally copied by the kings of Sri Lanka.

INSCRIPTIONS

Due to Rajaraja's need to file his army achievements, he recorded the necessary occasions of his life in stones. An inscription in Tamil from Mulbagal in Karnataka reveals his accomplishments as early because the 19th yr. An excerpt from such a Meikeerthi, an inscription recording nice accomplishments, follows:

Rajaraja recorded all of the grants made to the Thanjavur temple and his achievements. He additionally preserved the data of his predecessors. An inscription of his reign discovered at Tirumalavadi data an order of the king to the impact that the central shrine of the Vaidyanatha temple on the place must be rebuilt and that, earlier than knocking down the partitions, the inscriptions engraved on them must be copied in a guide. The data have been subsequently re-engraved on the partitions from the guide after the rebuilding was completed.

 
  • Rajaraja Cholan, a 1973 Tamil movie starring Sivaji Ganesan
  • Ponniyin Selvan by Kalki revolves across the lifetime of Raja Raja Chola, the mysteries surrounding the assassination of Aditya Karikalan and the following accession of Uttama to the Chola throne
  • Nandipurathu Nayagi by Vembu Vikiraman revolves across the ascension of Uttama Chola to the throne and Raja Raja's naval expedition
  • Rajaraja Cholan by Kathal Ramanathan
  • Udaiyar by Balakumaran
  • Kandalur Vasantha Kumaran Kathai by Sujatha which cope with the conditions main Raja raja to invade Kandalur
  • Rajakesari and Cherar Kottai by Gokul Seshadri cope with the Kandalur invasion and its after-effects
  • Bharat Ek Khoj, a 1988 historic drama in its episodes 22 and 23 portrays Raj Raja Chola.
  • Kaviri Mainthan, a 2007 novel by Anusha Venkatesh



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